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Urology, also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs.

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collect and store urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination and it rests on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. The typical human bladder will hold between 300 and 500 ml before the urge to empty occurs but can hold considerably more.

Cancer of related male organs
Cancer of the female reproductive organs especially cervical and breast cancer are emphasised monthly, weekly throughout the year, while there appears to be almost no references regarding the male reproductive organs. According to Lourens (2019) recent research has revealed that the incidence of testicular cancer in males between 14 and 44 has doubled over the past 40 years.

[Accessed 22 October 2019] (https://.702.co.za/podcasts/110/the-best-of-early-breakfast/247279/testicular-canc).

According to the Testicular Cancer Awareness Foundation (2019), it was confirmed that testicular is the leading cancer in men ages 15 to 44, the discussion states that in this age group more men will die of testicular cancer than women of breast cancer (https://www.testicularcancerawarenessfoundation.org/statistic-risk-factors/) [Accessed 22 October 2019).

Oke (2018) said:

For the first time in the UK, the number of deaths from prostate cancer has exceeded the number of deaths from breast cancer. According to figures from the UK’s Office for National Statistics (ONS), more men died of prostate cancer (11,819) than women died from breast cancer (11,442) in The Guardian.

Both men and women have breast tissue. In men, most breast tissue is located behind the nipple. Women have a lot more breast tissue than men and a much higher rate of breast cancer. Cancers can, however, occur in male breast tissue.

In 2014 (the most recent incidence data), 140 Australian men were diagnosed with breast cancer. As our population ages, we are likely to see a gradual increase in the number of Australian men diagnosed with breast cancer each year. It is therefore increasingly important to provide information and support to affected men and their families. In 2016, 28 men died of breast cancer in Australia (https://www.cancer.org.ua/about-cancer/types-of-cancer/breast-cancer/breast-cancer-in…) [Accessed 22 October 2019).

 

One difference is that breast cancer is common among women and rare among men. Women tend to be aware of this disease and its possible warning signs, but many men do not think that they can get it at all. Some men ignore breast lumps or think they are caused by an infection or some other reason, and don’t get medical treatment until the mass has had a chance to grow. Some men are embarrassed when they find a breast lump and worry that someone might question their masculinity. This could also delay diagnosis and reduce a man’s chances for successful treatment (American Cancer Society).

 

 

 

 

Testicular cancer can be cured, even if it is widespread; the cycling champion Lance Armstrong is the poster boy for modern chemotherapy. Still, treatment is much easier if the disease is detected early. An imaging procedure, testicular ultrasound, is an excellent way to spot the disease, but it’s not necessary unless there is a specific reason to worry about it. Doctors should screen young men by performing a testicular exam at each check-up. And men between the ages of 15 and 35 should screen themselves on a regular basis, as follows: establish a regular time for the exam: The first day of each month may be convenient. The exam is easiest after a warm shower or bath, when the muscles in the scrotum are relaxed. It’s an easy procedure: Simply roll the testicle gently between the thumb and first two fingers (see figure below). Examine one testicle at a time, using both hands. Normal testicles are smooth and slightly spongy, the person is checking for an abnormally firm texture, a pea-sized lump, or an increase in size. Learn to recognise the normal, cordlike, tubular epididymis at the rear of each testicle so you won’t confuse it with an abnormal mass. Tell the doctor if unusual firmness is noticed, a firm nodule, or unexpected tenderness of the testicle. If the doctors’ exam agrees with the person, the next step will be a testicular ultrasound — a safe and accurate test that will determine whether a person needs a biopsy.